E-waste typically includes discarded computers and components, cathode ray tubes (CRTs), printed circuit boards (PCB), mobile phones, headphones, wires & cables, and white household goods such as liquid crystal display (LCD), plasma TVs, ACs, refrigerators etc.As per Industry body ASSOCHAM, India’s e-waste generation is likely to increase by nearly three times, from the existing 18 lakh MT per annum to 52 lakh MT per annum by 2020 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of about 30%[1].

Figure 1: E waste across cities and categories

Despite increasing number of registered recyclers/dismantlers in the country and large volume of E-waste generated, only about 5% of it is processed through formal sector. The remaining is either donated or goes to Kabadiwallas.For example, although Hyderabad generates about 32 000 metric tonnes of E-waste annually[2] the formal sector recyclers whose combined capacity is only around 20,000 tonnes do not get adequate waste.

[1]Source: The Hindu – article dated at June, 2016
[1]Source: ASSOCHAM-Frost & Sullivan study, April, 2016

The biggest e-waste recycling market in India is Delhi and approximately 30% to 40% of the e-waste in India lands there.


E waste recycling process can be divided into two parts; separation and size reduction of metals (aluminium/copper/steel) & plastics andextraction of precious metals. Majority of Indian E waste companies do not have refinery/precious metal recovery facility, due to high capital cost (over INR 8 crores for refinery of 1 tonne per day) and lack of adequate waste availability.

Figure 2: E Waste Dismantling Process

The quality of e waste also plays a big role in deciding the nature of recycling facilities. For example PCB (Printed Circuit Board) around which the business of E waste recycling revolves can be divided into various grades depending on the gold content. As per Umicore, a precious metal refinery in Belgium, the PCBs can be divided into four grades (Table1)

Table 1: Grades of Printed Circuit Boards
PCB  GradesAvailable in
low value (Gold content of 50 PPM or lessTV-boards, monitor boards, printer boards, cordless phones, calculators, shredded bulk material after Al-/Fe-separation  etc
medium value ( gold content of minimum 100 ppm)PC-boards, laptop-and handheld-computer circuit boards, etc.
high value (gold content of 200 ppm ore more)Circuit boards from mainframes, mobile phones, ICs, MLCCs
Source: www.umicore.com

Whilerefining is useful for high grade PCBs, for low/medium grade PCBS manual dismantling coupled with extraction of copper is a more viable option.

Current Players:

The total number of registered E-waste recyclers in India is 178[3]., whereas Hyderabad has 5[4].  Some of the large players are as under

[3]Source: List of Registered E-Waste Dismantlers/Recyclers in the country (as on 29-12-2016)
[4]Source: Telangana State Pollution Control Board

Table 2: National E-Waste Recyclers – India
NameHead QuarterActivitiesCapacity (MT/Yr.)Date of Est.
Auctus E-recycling solutions P Ltd.NoidaDismantling, Metal-Nonmetal separations, Plastic recycling218002011
E- IncarnationMumbaiData security, Refurbishing, Metal- Nonmetal recovery and disposal30002010
E-ParisaraaPvt. Ltd.BangaloreData destruction, Dismantling, & Precious metal extraction8820September, 2005
Earth SenseHyderabadDismantling, Segregation & Disposal> 40002000
Eco Centric Management P. LtdMumbaiE-waste management, CSR initiatives -donations, refurbishment.2500January, 2011
Eco Recycling Ltd. (ECORECO)ThaneE-waste recycling, EPR implementation72001994, Formerly InfotrekSyscom
Greenspace Eco ManagementDelhiDismantling, Refurbishing, Take back programs, etc.600002007
Ramky ewaste recyclingHyderabadCollection, Dismantling, Metal- Nonmetal recovery and Disposal10000
TES AMM IndiaKancheepuramE Waste Recycling, Takeback program300002005

 Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) for various options:

E waste recycling chain begins with a collection centre, which can be set up for Rs. 10 lakhs. However,standalone collection centres are not encouraged to register, unless they are being set up by a recycler/refurbished or an electronic product manufacturer.  A collection centre combined with a dismantling unit can be set up for around Rs. 45 lakhs.  In India, recycling is restricted to separation of Metal and Non-metal and granulation, as the technology for extraction of precious metal is not economical.

Figure 3: Capex required for Setting up aE waste processing unit

Regulatory requirements:

The industry is governed by e waste rules which specify the approvals and infrastructure requirements. The approvals need to be obtained from State pollution control body.

List of Approvals RequiredAuthorising BodyRemarks
CTO – Consent to OperateTelangana State – Pollution Control BodyThese are considered as pre-operations & establishment approvals.
CTE – Consent to Establish
One time authorisationSuch approvals also often have a validity period.
Certificate of registration & Proof of installed capacityDistrict Industries Centre.This is a common certificate of registration under any industry and serves as pre-requisite for approvals mentioned above.
ParticularsCollection centresDismantling unitsRe-cyclersRefurbishers
Who can establishProducers/Refurbishers/Dismantlers/Recycler, standalone collection centre are not allowedAny Individual, Company, Society, they must have agreement with e waste generators/producers to procure e waste
ParticularsDismantling unitsRe-cyclersRefurbishers
Restrictions on certain operationsDismantling units are not allowed Shredding or Leaching of; Circuit Boards, Lamps, Cathode ray tubes CRTs, LCDs and Plasma TVs.None provided necessary infrastructure is in place. Not defined
Area required (per tonne of capacity)300 Sq. Metres.500 Sq. Metres150 Sq. Metres


The profitability of e waste recycling company depends on its access to waste and cost of waste. Cost of waste accounts for around 75-85 per cent of total cost of operations. The revenue depends on the quality of waste collected by the company. For simple dismantling operations, the estimated cost of waste and recovery per tonne is as under:

Table 5: Unit Economics of Dismantling 1 Tonne assorted E-waste
Sl.No.Material% Composition (by weight) Price INR/KGValue (INR)
1Mild Steel0.23153,450
2Stainless Steel0.08151,200
5Copper wire0.032006,000
7Other material including precious material0.081008,000
8Hazardous Material0.01
 Overall value (INR)25,400
 Cost of waste (INR)20,000
 Gross Profit (INR)5,400
Source: Paper on Sustainable Electronic Waste Management and Recycling Process by S. Chatterjee, Department of Information Technology, Published in American Journal of Environmental Engineering, 2012

Other than the raw material cost, which has been discussed above, rentis another significant cost,Assuming a dismantling capacity of 5 tonnes per day, the area requirement @ 300 square meter per tonne of waste is 1500 square meters and rent can be up  to INR  3-5 lakhs per annum. Further, there are other fixed overheads such as labour and interest.   As such,one needs to process at least 3-5 tonnes per day, just to recover the costs.

Opportunities for a new enterprise

The e waste sector has grown at a slow pace over the last five years, largely due to lack of awareness about e waste rules,  absence of strict guidelines for disposal of e waste and challenges from the informal sector recyclers who are able to offer a better price for the waste. However, the regulations around e waste are expected to tighten and would bring unorganised sector into mainstream.

While opportunities for e waste recycling are only expected to increase in future, profitability would depend on the value addition done by the enterprise.  Therefore, aspiring e waste companies would also need to build skill sets in e waste segregation and in identifying reusable waste. We believe that

  1. Dismantling can be a profitable option if you are able to establish a network of waste collection centres and develop skill sets to identify reusable waste
  2. Setting up a refurbishing centre, where salvaged computers/phones can be repaired using new or old components should also be attractive.
  3. Recyclers would need a large network of collection centres or need to import waste to ensure capacity utilisation

How we can help you?

We can help you set up E waste recycling unit through a number of services including

  • Market viability assessment
  • Technical consultation and
  • Detailed project report preparation

Reach Us

Write to us: bchhatre@finetrain.comadmin@finetrain.com

Call us: 800 888 4932 /9032398367

Visit us: www.finetrain.com

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Business opportunity: Medical Devices sector

Medical devices refer to devices and consumables used by the doctors and hospitals in patient care. It is a multi-product industry comprising consumables, surgical instruments, implants and diagnostic reagents. The industry size is estimated to be INR. 30,000 crores, with imports accounting for 70 per cent of the industry turnover. The industry is growing in double digits.

The sector offers huge opportunity for entrepreneurs to offer cost competitive products that can reduce our dependence on imports and make healthcare more affordable and accessible to all.

What are the key segments?

The market can be divided into four categories, as shown below

Picture 1: Indian Medical device Industry


Source: Recommendation of task force on Medical Device sector in India-2015

Who are the large manufacturers?

The Indian market is dominated by international players such as Abbott Vascular, GE health care, Phillips health Care, Medtronic, Johnson and Johnson, Siemens, Baxter, Stryker, Zimmer holdings and many more.

Among the Indian manufacturers, there are around 800 companies, majority of them are present in price competitive consumable segment.  Some of the interesting Indian players who have been able to offer technology based differentiated products are as under. (See table 1)

Table 1: Medical devices manufacturers-interesting companies


Where is the opportunity?

The equipment and surgical segment and implants offer attractive opportunity for manufacturing indigenous products that can reduce our import dependence. These segments have been described in the table below.

Table 2: Attractive segments- Medical device industry


The opportunity can be broadly be divided into two categories:

  1. Manufacturing Products similar to already existing imported products: For example: surgical sutures, dialysis machines, ECG machines, patient monitoring systems etc. Indian companies can offer more cost effective diagnostic equipment or an implant
  1. Opportunities to create new products that are not available in the market before For example- Cost effective diagnostic solutions for poor and rural population. Some of the companies that work in this area include Forus health care (Eye screening devices) and Biosense Technologies (cost effective solutions for checking blood sugar, anaemia etc).

What are the challenges?

As per Dr. Ashutosh Mundkur, a senior medical device industry professional and start up mentor, a medical device start-up faces following challenges:

Inadequate market research: The market assessment about the need for the device and its ability to either cut the healthcare cost or improve user experience has to be clearly established. Many companies discover their inability to sell the product after they have launched the product in the market

Lack of adequate attention to quality and safety aspects of the device: Many a time’s start-ups are too focussed on reducing the cost of the device to make it competitive Vis a Vis imported products and do not pay enough attention to the quality aspects.

Regulatory hurdles: There is lack of clarity on license required for manufacturing medical devices. As per the current regulations, the CDSCO license (Central Drug Standards Control Organisation) is needed for 14 notified devices[1].  For the remaining, it is left to the state Drug controller office/CDSCO to decide whether a license is needed. However regulatory hurdles are expected to clear after passage of new medical device regulation, which is currently under review and awaits parliamentary approval

Funding: Investor interest in early stage medical device start-ups remains low, due to uncertainty about the device’s potential to make it big and long development time. Some of the funds[2] that have invested in health care start-ups include Avishkar, Acumen, Centre for innovation and entrepreneurship (CIE, IIMA), Unitus, Venture East and Viligro


With the rising disposable incomes and increasing longevity, the demand for better health care is only going to rise. Medical devices are instrumental in making health care more affordable and accessible.  The ecosystem for the medical device companies is expected to improve with government’s effort to promote manufacturing in India.  As such, growing demand and improving regulatory outlook, make medical device manufacturing a very attractive segment.

How can we help you?

We can help you start a medical device manufacturing business through a number of services including business viability assessment, market landscaping and expert consultation.

Reach us:


Phone:800 888 4932

[1] As per drugs and cosmetic act fourteen devices are notified as drugs. In addition, eight products including Blood Grouping Sera, Ligatures, Sutures and Staplers, Intra Uterine Devices (Cu-T), Condoms, tubal Rings, Surgical Dressings, Umbilicalfapcs, Blood Component Bags also require drug license.

[2] Source: https://yourstory.com/2013/09/ventures-investing-in-indian-healthcare-sector/

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